Firecraft - How to Build a Fire
There are several methods for laying a fire, each of which has advantages. The situation you find yourself in will determine which fire to use.
To make this fire (Figure 7-5), arrange the tinder and a few sticks of kindling in the shape of a tepee or cone. Light the center. As the tepee burns, the outside logs will fall inward, feeding the fire. This type of fire burns well even with wet wood.
To lay this fire (Figure 7-5), push a green stick into the ground at a 30-degree angle. Point the end of the stick in the direction of the wind. Place some tinder deep under this lean to stick. Lean pieces of kindling against the lean-to stick. Light the tinder. As the kindling catches fire
from the tinder, add more kindling.
To use this method (Figure 7-5), scratch a cross about 30 centimeters in
size in the ground. Dig the cross 7.5 centimeters deep. Put a large wad of tinder in the middle of the cross. Build a kindling pyramid above the tinder. The shallow ditch allows air to sweep under the tinder to provide a draft.
To lay this fire (Figure 7-5), place two small logs or branches parallel on the ground. Place a solid layer of small logs across the parallel logs. Add
three or four more layers of logs or branches, each layer smaller than and at a right angle to the layer below it. Make a starter fire on top of the pyramid. As the starter fire burns, it will ignite the logs below it. This gives you a fire that burns downward, requiring no attention during the night.
There are several other ways to lay a fire that are quite effective. Your
situation and the material available in the area may make another method more suitable.